Researchers from Columbia University managed to solve one of the main problems of medical electronics. They learned to use the ion channels of the cell membranes and the energy of ATP to supply chips in the housing BGA. The distinction between biological and artificial is becoming increasingly blurred, and trans-humanism-closer.
Development of implantable electronics is constrained by many factors, one of which is a problem of supply. Until now, artificial organs using massive external batteries, and defective internal battery at the pacemaker often leads to sudden death in patients with complete AV block. The simplest implantable sensor – and that requires its own power source, albeit a low-power.
The problem is that biologists usually poorly versed in electrical engineering, and engineers do not understand anything in biology. Therefore, for each task seems insurmountable. Narrow specialists focus on the details known only to them, rather than to try to give an overview and supplement it together. The long-awaited breakthrough was realized it together – at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Columbia University, with the support of colleagues from Brown University and the University of Puget Sound. Here we will try to discover the power CMOS BGA chip on the cell membrane.
Note from technicians
In the experiment, the researchers created a bilayer lipid membrane. According to the structure it is similar to the membrane of a living cell, but without the “extra” elements. On every square millimeter of its surface is naturally formed of 2×106 sodium-potassium ion channels, working through the energy of ATP hydrolysis. They are able to withstand the current of 32.6 pA/mm2 and create a potential difference 78 mV. This membrane is able to give energy to the connected load, providing a capacity of up to 1.27 pW from every square millimeter of their area. A thin film of silver / silver chloride acts as an ion-electron converter.
Note from biochemists
During ATP hydrolysis releases the energy stored in the form of chemical bonds. Please torn end that leads to the formation of ADP, orthophosphate and energy release. In normal conditions it is produced 30.54 kJ per mole (60.22 J/g). In the living cell due to the higher temperature is higher than the actual value of about 50 kJ / mol (99 J / g). Then, in a molecule of ADP can collapse the second link, and additional energy.
A series of experiments showed that the two membranes in the construction of the “sandwich” already provide sufficient voltage to operate the integrated circuit. The efficiency of conversion of chemical energy into electrical tests on the technology the authors was 14.9%. Attempts to find alternative energy sources continue. Created piezo, thermal, photographic, mechanical and sorts more X-electrical energy converters. However, in the medical aspect, they pale against the backdrop of an enticing prospect – directly disposed of the biochemical processes of energy as it is made by living cells.
We are nearly end of this article Biological process adapted to supply chips, however its still on process so far. If you like this article then we recommend you to read about the 8 best wireless hard drives which you can gift, as the New Year knocking the door.
Of course, one or two of the cell membrane to obtain all the necessary electronics for implantable energy can in principle. However, any battery – an association of low-power generating elements, of which there may be more than one million. For comparison, the human body consists of about 1014 cells and their dies every minute over 108. Nerve mammalian cells contain twenty times the sodium-potassium ion channels formed than in the described artificial membrane. The idea of the Wachowski brothers about people-to check the battery was not so fantastic.